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生熟菜地施肥要点介绍

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2015-06-03  来源:黑龙江农业信息网  浏览次数:828325
内容摘要:  针对蔬菜地不同类型施肥,是蔬菜实现优质高产的重要措施。笔者在乡下常听到一些菜农反映,一些生菜地(即刚种植蔬菜的土地)多施
   针对蔬菜地不同类型施肥,是蔬菜实现优质高产的重要措施。笔者在乡下常听到一些菜农反映,一些生菜地(即刚种植蔬菜的土地)多施肥增产效果明显,而常年种植蔬菜的熟菜地,容易造成肥害,多施肥有时反而会减产。

农民信息网 www.fxnonstop.com   蔬菜在对肥料的吸收和利用上,它们的能力强弱取决于自身纤维内蔗糖浓度高低之间产生的“渗坑”,依靠压力差促进营养液流动,以叶片的水分蒸腾拉动根、茎对肥料的运转与吸收,使其在平衡与不平衡中交换运行,而使菜株生长发育。刚种蔬菜的生菜地,土壤营养液浓度小,“渗坑”大,植株体中对以蔗糖为主要成分传递形式的信号强,调控能力大,对这类菜地增施肥料,正迎合了蔬菜对肥料的迫切需求和迅速吸收利用,促成了多施肥、多增产的明显效果。而熟菜地因本身的土壤营养消耗大,“渗坑”小,植株中蔗糖信号传递和调控能力弱,甚至在一些经常种菜的熟菜地,因营养成分充足,而失去了“渗坑”作用,对这类菜地施肥过多,不仅不能促进蔬菜对肥料的吸收利用,相反会导致菜株体内的营养成分受阻,发生许多有害于蔬菜正常生长的生理障碍,造成烂种死苗毁种,或脱水死苗或烂根死苗等许多被“撑死”的现象。

新玩家汇娱乐  许多常年种植蔬菜的熟菜地,会出现一些土壤老化现象。主要表现是病菌和残留毒害增加,土壤板结,有机质匮乏,因大量施用复合肥、二铵等化肥,忽视有机肥施用,造成土壤板结,透气性降低,好气性微生物活性下降,根系发育不良,易受病害。过量施用化肥,菜地pH值升高,土壤盐渍化加重。微量元素不足,多年连作土壤中的锌、硼、铁、钼等微量元素被蔬菜大量吸收,又得不到补充时,会使这些微量元素逐年减少,严重影响蔬菜生长发育。土壤耕层较浅,菜地多用人工翻掘,实行茬茬相连的间作套种园地翻掘更少,土层日渐变浅,影响根系伸展,而生菜地因种植蔬菜时间不长,一般不会出现上述现象,因而施肥利用率高,增产的效果显着。

  对于这两种类型的蔬菜地,要让蔬菜生长正常,获得增产增收的好效益,必须合理施肥,让菜地保持适宜的营养浓度,让蔬菜保持适中的植物“渗坑”效应??蒲┓实脑蚴?
一是增施大量腐熟的有机肥料。特别是对熟菜地宜停止使用化肥和单一的氮肥。
二是坚持常年施用植物秸秆、厩肥和人畜粪等有机肥料,以改善土壤的团粒结构,使水肥气热明显协调。对已酸化或碱化的土壤进行改造,除增施有机肥外,还应适量施用中性肥料,如土壤呈酸性可施石灰或草木灰中和,土壤呈碱性,可施硫酸铵或过磷酸钙调节,以改善菜土的酸化性质。
三是实行不同科蔬菜的合理轮作倒茬,无论是生菜地还是熟菜地,不宜在同一块菜地上连续几茬都种同一种蔬菜。应经常轮作倒茬。
新玩家汇娱乐 四是坚持科学的施肥原则。按每亩保持纯氮19公斤,有效磷7公斤,纯钾30公斤。施肥前,先测试土壤中有效含量,然后测算需要补充的品种和数量,再视品种、苗情决定施用方法和数量。一般原则是:“生菜地”和瘠薄土壤的菜地多施点;“熟菜地”和肥沃土壤的菜地少施点。氮、磷、钾比例为2.5:0.9:5.5。适当补充硼、锌肥,注重穴施多元素蔬菜专用肥。对肥害苗及时控肥,根外喷施生长调节剂。发生盐害、肥害时,及时给菜地浇水,覆盖瘠薄土,压盐并缓冲土壤营养浓度,防止蔬菜被肥“撑死”。

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