新玩家汇娱乐

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说说农药残留的三点疑惑

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2015-05-22  来源:世界农化网  浏览次数:85547
内容摘要:  从农药茶、药袋苹果、甲醛白菜,直到最近的问题西瓜、乙草胺草莓,近年毒水果、毒蔬菜事件频繁出现在公众的视线里,那么农药
   从“农药茶”、“药袋苹果”、“甲醛白菜”,直到最近的“问题西瓜”、“乙草胺草莓”,近年“毒水果”、“毒蔬菜”事件频繁出现在公众的视线里,那么农药残留问题由何引起?我国农残监管现状如何?农药行业、农药企业又该采取哪些措施降低农药残留?

农民信息网 www.fxnonstop.com   农药残留意味着不安全?

新玩家汇娱乐  所谓农药残留,是农药使用后一个时期内没有被分解而残留于生物体、收获物、土壤、水体及大气中的微量农药原体,有毒代谢物,降解物和杂质的总称。残留农药直接通过植物果实或水、大气到达人畜体内,或通过环境、食物链最终传递给人畜。

  农药残留事件严重影响农产品的销售,那么,有农残就一定意味着不安全吗?中国农药工业协会会长孙叔宝表示:“符合农药残留限量标准的产品,对人体健康、环境来说是安全的。首先,物质残留在作物上的时间是有限的,并非长期存在;一些农药只对特定的靶标如杂草、虫害、菌害等产生作用,不会危害人体健康;此外,残留要达到一定量才具有危害性。农药在登记时必须进行安全性评估,包括药效、急性毒性、慢性毒性、毒理学分析、环境行为等,这些评估是在大剂量、长时间作用的基础上进行的,实际使用中的浓度往往只有评估时的几百分之一。”

新玩家汇娱乐  我国农药残留标准如何?

  据孙叔宝介绍,我国对农药残留的检测主要在两个层面进行。一是源头,集中产区的农产品在当地检测部门直接检测,从种子到施肥、施药都配有相应的技术指导,特别是“一乡一作物”地区;二是消费极,大型农贸市场或超市会设有检测环节,保证农残在可控范围内。据了解,我国农残相关标准的制定参考FAO(联合国粮食及农民信息网组织)、WHO(世界卫生组织)等国际组织的标准。

新玩家汇娱乐  近10年来,我国高毒农药占比从30%下降到1.7%,而我国农药残留的相关标准也日趋严格。2013年3月1日,食品安全国家标准《食品中农药最大残留限量》(GB2763-2012)开始实施,规定了食物中可以使用的322种农药、2293项最大残留限量。而自2014年8月1日起,食品安全国家标准《食品中农药最大残留限量》(GB2763-2014)开始施行。新标准增加了1357项农药最大残留限量标准及15项检测方法标准;增加了胺鲜酯等65种农药名称,并细化了食品类别及测定部位,基本与国际标准接轨。

  前不久,农业部启动化肥农药使用量零增长行动,将以“高效低毒低残留农药替代高毒高残留农药、推行精准科学施药”等措施作为农药零增长的技术路径,提高农药利用率,力争至2020年实现农药使用总量零增长。再加上新《食品安全法》将于10月1日正式实施,农残监管措施进一步完善,无疑将加快农药行业向低毒、环保方向发展。

  如何才能减少农药残留?

  绿色化、可持续是当前我国农业的关键词。因此,开发低毒、低残留农药成为减少农残的当务之急。据了解,目前我国仍有12种高毒农药未被列入淘汰名单,其原因是市场对其仍有需求。对此,农业部相关负责人也表示,当前全面淘汰剧毒、高毒农药尚不可行,因为地下害虫、线虫、仓储害虫等病虫的防治,目前还主要依赖高毒农药。新农药的开发周期长,短期内难以找到理想的替代品种。全面禁用剧毒、高毒农药,不利于农业生产和粮食安全。

  “除了产品本身的安全性,施药器械如何、是否漂移、使用时间长短都决定着农药的使用效果,合理的使用农药不仅可以提高使用效率,更能够减少残留。因此,农药的使用行为至关重要,一些事故的发生往往是因为农药使用者没有按照符合标准的操作方法施药。”孙叔宝表示。

新玩家汇娱乐  专家呼吁,一方面,行业及企业应当负起责任,指导使用者合理、安全的使用农药;另一方面,对不合法的农药使用者应加大处罚力度,严格的处罚措施有利于农药的规范使用。据中国农药工业协会信息与统计部主任段又生介绍:“去年4月成立了安全科学使用农药委员会,成员单位已增至46家,包括拜耳、科赛基农、海利尔、中化农化等,旨在培训农民和经销商能够安全科学的使用农药,减少用药不当给农业生产以及农药行业自身带来的影响。”

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